This chapter examines the innovation environment of each of the three cities in the study. It includes a description of the governance structures in each nation and the rating of each nation and municipality on international innovation scales. It also provides contextual information on each city and outlines the formal structure of each municipal government. The strategy used to sample politicians and senior administrators from each municipality is then described. We then present results from the survey on the most important current and future socioeconomic challenges nominated by people inside and outside each municipality. The chapter concludes with a comparison of the innovation environments of the three cities.