The first of the three components of our framework for examining innovation capacity is structures. We use the term ‘structures’ to refer to governance structures, including both formal national structures of governance, and modes of governance that reflect how governance actually happens in contemporary societies. These can be seen as the ‘hard’ formal structures, and the more open but still managed structures, that enable and constrain action within institutions, in contrast to the ‘soft’ and informal networks, which are discussed in Chapter 3.