This chapter explains the Korean People’s Army’s performance and the legacy of the Korean War. It examines why Pak Hon-yong’s insurgency war failed during the pre-war period and why Kim Il Sung’s insurgency war was successful. This chapter also demonstrates how the partnership with China influenced North Korea’s Juche (self-reliance) ideology during the post-war period and how the American strategic bombing campaign shaped the traumatization of the North Korean people. Kim Il Sung skillfully used universal fear and a community identity of victimization of North Korean people to create and maintain a garrison state.