This ideological and political transformation was poles apart – except, perhaps, with respect to the role of the state – from the convictions of Henri Lefebvre, who was writing at this time.1 Lefebvre became known to the general public for Le droit à la ville (Lefebvre 1968a), a book that is

characterised by strong moral anxiety and proposes a new idea of citizenship. It would have significant political and cultural impact during the 1970s and later.2 Lefebvre’s ideas, which strongly influenced Harvey, Soja, and other American authors, have been extensively re-evaluated in recent years (see, e.g., Urban 2011-2012; Brenner and Elden 2009; Costes 2009; Merrifield 2006; Elden, Lebas, and Kofman, 2003; Kofman and Lebas 1996).