Planning in Practice The d iscussion up to this stage o f the argument has been largely abstract, an approach which we have justified in terms o f our belief in the fundamental unity o f the planning process. H ow ever, we have now com e to the point where the perpetuation o f the theoreti­ cal perspective is less profitable, and this is the area o f practical plan construction and implementation. In this chapter, we there­ fore exam ine the methods by which a specific m acroeconom ic plan might be drawn up and put into operation, and we conclude with a review of the planning experiences o f France and the Soviet Union.