This chapter analyses recent transformations in Brazilian adult education policy, however restricting attention to those impinging on Adult Basic and Secondary Education (ABSE). Starting with a brief introduction to the country’s mode of governance, population and public education system, the chapter then introduces the reader to a federal initiative, the Literacy Brazil Program (LBP), which was launched by the national Ministry of Education in 2003 and was still running in 2016. Departing from this initiative, the next section disembroils a multi-source analysis (see chapter two), with the goal of discerning whether and how local actions in adult education relate to national governance and global networking (see part II).