The built environment touches almost all domains of human knowledge: history (symbolism and culture), physical sciences (behavior of materials in complex con gurations), biology (response to materials and environment), psychology (behavior of people in various settings), engineering (distribution of energy and support), and a host of other disparate elds of study. These are each subjects in which individuals earn doctoral degrees, so it is not surprising that those responsible for designing new environments do not possess all the required expertise. Their expertise lies in design-consulting, integrating, and coordinating the great many details connected to the expertise of others.