A great deal of political courage will be required to repudiate outcomes-based education (OBE). Once again refracting the broader curriculum reform issues through an analysis of the curricula developed for mathematics and reading in the Foundation Phase, this chapter shows how a review of the National Curriculum Statement (NCS) in 2009 finally managed to dispense with OBE and, consequently, open up the possibilities for clearer curriculum content specification. The Curriculum and Assessment Policy (CAPS), as the new curriculum would be called, reasserted the importance of subjects, including closely specifying the teaching of reading, writing and number concept. The third curriculum reform of the democratic era made a decisive shift towards a knowledge-based curriculum. By 2009 socially, economically and politically, the South African state and society had begun to unravel in a way that saw widespread xenophobic attacks, service delivery protests and sustained criminality.