This conclusion presents some closing thoughts on the key concepts discussed in preceding chapters of this book. The processes of curriculum reform described in the book offer a kind of natural experiment in changes in curriculum policy and the relation to pedagogy in a developing country context. The period under consideration was a time of radical and rapid change, from apartheid to a democratic regime. The different political regimes fostered very different pedagogic regimes, reflected in the understanding of what knowledge was to be distributed to whom. A key distinction used in the book is between the analytically separable instructional and regulative discourse. Progressivism suggests an individualizing at the level of regulative discourse and a weak classification of knowledge and framing of evaluative criteria at the level of instructional discourse such that integration, self-directed learning and the natural potential of the learner can be released.