This chapter locates the research presented in the book in its historical context, and describes some of the evidence available on how education was delivered in classrooms in black schools under apartheid. When looking at accounts of teaching and learning at the time, classrooms are often characterized as bound by very authoritarian relations between teachers and students, and rote learning devoid of meaningful participation and critical engagement on the part of learners. Fundamental pedagogics (FP) was a particular philosophy and 'science' of education, prevalent in teacher education under apartheid in the former Afrikaans and black universities and their associated colleges. Many of the progressive interventions targeted white schools and the very small number of private schools only. One of the more well-known progressivist alternatives for black schooling was the Primary Education Upgrading Programme (PEUP), operating in the 'bantustan' of Bophutatswana.