ABSTRACT

Cities are much more than just bricks and mortar. They are also digital. A core aspect of places and the ways that we enact them and bring them into being is computation and digital data (Kitchin and Dodge 2011; Graham et al. 2013). Platforms such as Google Maps, Baidu, OpenStreetMap, Wikipedia, Twitter, Facebook and Yelp! all encourage users to embed and deploy digital content in their everyday spatial practices. Graham et al. (2013: 465), for example, argue that ‘representations of place, in conjunction with myriad other layerings and discourses’ can be seen as augmentations of the city. Because these augmentations are such an integral element to contemporary urban environments, it is crucial to understand how they are produced and reproduced, and made visible and invisible by both large organisations and the cumulative eorts of millions of contributors (Leszczynski and Wilson 2013; Leszczynski 2015; Wilson 2014).