The 1950s were years of great paradox in Rhodesia. The decade witnessed the establishment of the Central African Federation (CAF), an experiment in multiracialism and partnership between black and white. In 1956, legislation by Prime Minister Garfi eld Todd was instituted, which decreed that Africans should no longer be referred to as “Natives”, with “African” replacing “Native” in all offi cial government legislation the following year. Four years into Federation, Africans were granted the right to drink European beer (but not spirits). Two years later, in 1959, the Unlawful Organizations Act was passed which banned the Southern Rhodesia African National Congress (SRANC), an act which further radicalised and thus changed the nature and trajectory of African nationalist politics.