This chapter focuses on the cognitive methods and practices used in Challenge-for-Thought. It provides a comprehensive explanation of Transactional Analysis (TA). It is worthwhile to discuss those elements of the TA model that can help identify, challenge, and change counterproductive self-talk and intermediate beliefs. During Challenge-for-Thought, coaches help clients become aware of and correct any contaminated self-talk (thinking) and counterproductive beliefs standing in the way of goal attainment. This task is accomplished by eliciting the self-talk linked to undesirable feelings and behavior. Contaminated self-talk is reflexive, and most clients need help in bringing it to the surface. The coach can help by listening for contaminated self-talk in the client's Surface Structure language, and then educating the client about the thought-feeling connection. The chapter describes several ways of eliciting self-talk during the coaching session. Finally, there are times when a more structured approach to identifying contaminated self-talk is needed.