This chapter introduces methods and tools to be used in Challenge-for-Thought when challenging contaminated self-talk and counterproductive beliefs interfering with goal attainment, or when the regulation of emotions and behavior is, in and of itself, the client's goal. Whether it is refuting patterns of distorted thinking present in their self-talk or uncovering and disputing counterproductive beliefs, the basic strategy is the same: Engage the integrating Adult ego state through the process of collaborative empiricism to reality-test the client's thinking. Self-talk may represent thoughts that are entirely valid, or it may contain cognitive distortions believed to be valid by the client, but that are not! The coach is not in a position to judge what is or is not true in the client's thinking. Once the effect of the self-talk on the client's emotions and behavior has been determined, the client is in a position to think about the advantages and disadvantages of continuing the self-talk brought about by the situation.