Positive psychology, also known as the science of wellbeing, is the study of human potential and optimal functioning. The field of psychology began crystallizing into its own discrete profession in the late 1800s as a synthesis of philosophy, neurobiology, and anthropology. Speculations about the role of self-determination and consciousness were eclipsed by psychodynamic theory, often called the first force in psychology. Concurrently, the behavioral movement—also known as the second force—was gaining prominence in the psychology world. Humanism, coined the third force, proposed that we are propelled by actualizing tendencies and that mental and social problems arise from disruptions in these efforts. Positive psychology parallels other approaches emerging as part of the fourth force in psychology. The word "positive" in positive psychology has also been a bone of contention—both for critics and proponents of the field. Ironically, positive psychology, with its focus on character strengths, resilience, and posttraumatic growth, may be even more relevant during hard times.