This chapter examines four interrelated issues of Indonesia's relationship with ASEAN. The first is the persistent problem that has long plagued Indonesia, namely, its grand ambition of becoming a great nation. For Indonesia, the compromise solution, and a historically profitable one, has been to focus on ASEAN as the centerpiece of its foreign policy. The second issue involves Indonesia's contributions, in and through ASEAN, to moulding the shape and substance of Asian multilateralism. The third concern has to do with the feature of Asian multilateralism to which Indonesia, perhaps more than any other country and stakeholder in Asia's ensemble of regional arrangements has furnished leadership, namely, the engagement and socialization of China towards norms of regional responsibility. The final issue of Indonesia is indeed intent on life beyond ASEAN; the road it must take could prove a long and complex one because of its own enduring limitations.