The mixing of very deep warm and cold waters marks the intersection of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Southern Oceans at the southern terminus of the planet. This creates a biologically productive and simultaneously harsh environment. The Antarctic Peninsula juts 1,200 miles (1,931 kilometers) into the heart of this ocean junction; it is bordered on the west by the Bellingshausen Sea, on the north by the Drake Passage, and on the east by the Weddell Sea. The continent of Antarctica has no permanent human residents. It neither is owned nor ruled by any single nation. Until the 1959 Antarctic Treaty, which regulates international relationships on the continent, the ice- and snow-covered landmass was surveyed, named, and claimed by multiple nations. The peninsula's arctic climate slows the breakdown of organic materials to a fraction of the rate of decomposition in a temperate climate. The practice of releasing untreated human waste into ocean water negatively impacts the biotic community.