In earlier stages of the practice of psychoanalysis, treatments were shorter. Although today we could question some of the diagnoses, the type of patients were believed to be restricted to psychoneuroses. The theories that governed listening and interpreting, while novel and brilliantly creative, were much simpler. To organise their listening and understanding, analysts had a theory of motivation limited to sexual and aggressive drives. The way of working consisted of presenting the basic rule to patients and getting them to free associate. The analyst then interpreted the resistances and the unconscious fantasies. The past was projected into the present in the form of transferences and could be rendered back to the patient in exact interpretations (Glover, 1931) unless countertransference intrusions caused blind spots.