The practical objection to utilitarianism is to maximize human happiness. This chapter explores various utilitarian responses to this objection, and its impact on the shape of utilitarianism. The most common utilitarian response is to distinguish between actual results and probable results. Actualist utilitarians evaluate actions simply by comparing the values of the resulting outcomes. Probabilistic utilitarians face a more complex task, by considering both the value of each outcome and its probability. There are many different ways to evaluate actions using both values and probabilities like maximin, expected value and maximax; maximin and maximax are both dubious. The chapter reveals a series of objections to utilitarianism that focus on the measurement of human well-being. Utilitarianism requires a further dimension of interpersonal comparison, arising from the fact that most utilitarians focus on probabilities rather than actual results. J. S. Mill combined utilitarianism with a strong commitment to both liberty and social equality.