This chapter explains the concepts of Church Diplomacy and Civil Society Activism can be seen as ideal types that are based upon the characterization of the starting-point as well as the end point of the developments. It focuses on detailed empirical analyses of developments inside the two cases, as well as a comparison of the two cases, they condense the logic behind their UN and human rights-related activities in a way that underlines the rationale of the respective protagonists. Pax Romana as an umbrella organization to bring together Roman Catholic student organizations from all over the world. From this basis, it developed into one of the first Roman Catholic lay organizations to cooperate with the UN, and finally to establish itself among the most active International Catholic Organizations (ICO). In comparison, the CCIA can be characterized as a specialized commission of the World Council of Churches (WCC) and in the beginning the International Missionary Council (IMC).