This chapter introduces the theory of collaborativism, previously known as online collaborative learning. Collaborativist theory represents a focus on learning networks that emerged with the advent of computer networking. Collaborativism, or online collaborative learning, evolved as a theory over more than three decades and represented an inductive approach to theory building. The invention of the internet and the subsequent emergence of a plethora of educational applications encouraged innovation but, at the same time, also underscored rather than dismissed the need for new strategic approaches informed by educational theory and research. Collaborativist theory emphasizes the augmentation of human agency and knowledge, rather than its reduction or replacement by artificial intelligence. Social and educational reforms related to the civil rights, feminist and anti-war movements in the latter part of the 20th century contributed to a shifting emphasis towards more active, collaborative and democratic learning approaches.