Lexicons and ontologies have been used to model language into a semantic network by means of formalised lexical concepts and structured conceptual relations. The semantic model, as Halliday puts it, is ‘the semiotic analogue of the interlocking material forces’ of sophisticated systems. Semantic features are used for semantics-based computational purposes, including information retrieval. The location of a document in the web is reduced into a universal resource identifier (URI address), and different URIs are in turn used as hyperlinks to point to different documents. Low-cost built-in micro-computers or digital memories have been developed recently to further connect physical objects and/or social behaviours into what is referred to as the ‘cyber-physical system’ (CPS). Through successful implementations and deployments of CPS into major industrial or service sectors, the internet has been evolving gradually from a meta-platform of information networks into the emerging Internet of Things.