This chapter describes a good story and 10 first language reading research studies that make major contributions to our understanding of reading and learning. The studies are explained in easy-to-understand terms to show how and why researchers carry out their research and how results are interpreted. The Reading Systems Framework not only specifies the development of a tightly integrated and precise word-recognition process but also proposes that the output of lexical access feeds the word-to-text-integration process. The chapter considers how research studies can be understood, and how they can be interpreted. It discusses the link between specific research efforts and the types of implications from research that lead to theory building and recommendations for instruction. The chapter describes a major story of an extended research effort beginning in the early to mid-1970s.