Charles Robert Darwin (1809-82) is rightly known as the father of evolutionary theory. In his great book On the Origin of Species (herea er Origin), published in 1859, he made the idea of evolution – gradual descent by law-like means from primitive beginnings – virtually commonsensical. At the same time, he o ered a mechanism, natural selection, that is today recognized as the chief force driving evolution. But his work was much more than purely scienti c. It had implications throughout Western culture, most especially in religion. Let us start with a brief sketch of Darwin’s ideas and then turn to religious questions: revealed religion, natural religion, and humankind.