Josiah Royce (1855-1916) was a central gure in late-nineteenth-and early-twentieth-century American philosophy. He is primarily known for his advocacy of a form of idealist metaphysics. His metaphysical interests led him to a fundamental reconsideration of topics in the philosophy of religion, ethics, the philosophy of science and logic. Royce spent his entire career as a professor at Harvard University. is position brought him into regular contact not only with William James (see Vol. 5, Ch. 2), Charles S. Peirce and other gures who shaped the dynamic ‘Golden Age’ of pragmatism, but also with the vibrant personalist movement led by Borden Parker Bowne. Both of these movements had signi cant in uence on Royce’s philosophy, particularly in the areas of ethics and religion.