This chapter highlights key dilemmas inherent in the current investigation of OMB that runs a whole spectrum of behaviors from relatively minor misbehavior to the most serious. The first dilemma, relevant to any scientific endeavor is the choice between an empirical and a theoretical approach. The second dilemma facing the researcher is whether to take a descriptive or prescriptive approach. The third dilemma facing researchers is whether to focus on the macro or micro levels. The fourth dilemma facing researchers is whether to adopt structural or process perspectives. The fifth dilemma involves the decision of whether to focus on the formal or informal aspects of organizational life. The choice between a subjective and an objective observation is our sixth dilemma. The seventh dilemma is the choice between cognitive and affective focused research. Our eighth research dilemma is the choice between direct and indirect measurement. The final dilemma concerns the choice between qualitative and quantitative methods.