This chapter evaluates current research on reflection and then looks at possible future research directions. It discusses the importance of action research, as it is the most common and widely used form of practitioner research. The value of all forms of practitioner research is that the research is conducted by the practitioner and not by an outsider: the practitioner can see their classroom with an 'outsider's eye, but an insider's knowledge'. Individual practitioners often undertake action research projects. Reflection is the type of cognitive process that creates awareness from experience via the analysis of experience, the diagnosis of need, and the summoning of relevant information. Line reflection involves investigating a particular instance during the intervention and considering the likely social norms, related to 'actor, process and product' in order to improve the intervention. Triangle reflection requires considering an issue by looking at it from the perspective of different participants and reflecting on what can be learned from those different perspectives.