The terms nationalism and federalism are not new to South Asia in modern times. This is particularly true of India, Pakistan, Nepal, and Sri Lanka, the four countries that form parts of this comprehensive systematic comparative study of the phenomenon of federal governance in South Asia. Historically, India, Nepal, and Sri Lanka have all gone through periods of competing regional kingdoms fighting for supremacy and attempts at centralization by one of them under a dominant centre. There is a patent historical contrast between China and South Asia. The former came under the hegemony of a middle kingdom quite early in its history and has been mostly ruled by a centralized state. On the contrary, the South Asian states that we are comparing here historically witnessed multiple regional kingdoms and competing centres of power.