Studies of federalism in South Asia have been few and far between despite the region being a fecund ground of multicultural and multinational societies. Our work is a reasonably comprehensive and comparative exploration of the federative experiments and possibilities in this region, home to one-fifth of the humanity. This chapter is divided into three parts. We first present a review of the federal theory, followed by a mapping of federalism in South Asia, and conclude with our own analytical model for a comparative study of federative political systems that broadly underlie the first systematic comparison of India and Pakistan as federative systems and examination of the devolutionary or federative discourses in Sri Lanka and Nepal.