This final chapter summarises the evidence presented in the book. It compares findings from Mumbai, Bangalore and New Delhi, showing key differences and similarities. This comparison looks at the changes to wage labour and self-employment, employment in small and large firms and how informal labour manifests in different ‘forms of exploitation’. The book finishes with a brief analysis of the response of civil society organisations, especially trade unions, to labour's changing structure. It concludes that, despite some major challenges, India's diverse labour movement is in a strong position to thrive if the depth of these structural changes is fully recognised.