The overall argument has made is that the analysis of race and gender in American Science Fiction(SF) can offer a way of reading the resistant and generative social possibilities of SF, and, in that argument's mirror image, that SF can offer new ways of analysing the intersections of gender, race, and other identity structures in American culture. The identifications SF allows people, the fantastic space of possibilities it creates, are necessarily at odds with the material world-just as Mannheim states of the utopian idea per se. Fritz Lang Metropolis stands as the largest spectacle, and most expensive production, of the silent-film era. Robots, in this reading, are not the totalising sign of productivity itself; instead, robots, like Ginsberg at the wheel, like Ellison's bridge, and like revolution itself, become the ultimate counter-production.