ABSTRACT

The formative event during the 1980s in the history of American psychiatry was the publication of the third edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III). This manual ushered in the third stage of the neosomatic revolution in psychiatry, which in its turn shaped American psychoanalysis’s discourse in the field of schizophrenia. Writers from diverse disciplines agree that psychiatry underwent a revolution in the beginning of the 1980s and that the DSM-III was its primary artifact. This paradigmatic change expressed itself in a renewed interest in diagnostic theories, as was customary in the medical model, and was the most significant aspect of the re-medicalization of American psychiatry. Through World War II and up to the 1970s, the more popular model in psychiatry was psychosocial, which was very gradually replaced with a biopsychosocial model. Since the publication of DSM-III in 1980, the model has morphed, as postulated by Steven Sharfstein (2005), a Maryland-based psychiatrist and a past American Psychiatric Association president, into a “bio-bio-bio” model. Some writers describe the paradigm shift in psychiatry as a move “from Freud to Kraepelin” and from psychoanalysis to descriptive psychiatry.