The embryonic approach to modernisation was integral to resolving long-standing dilemmas in the socialist tradition while responding to structural alterations in the economy and society of contemporary Britain. This chapter considers the dynamic of reform and modernisation within the Labour Party from 1979 to 1997. The focus is the promulgation of ideas and strategies during Kinnock’s leadership. The reform of party institutions and the ruthless pursuit of electoral success were no doubt important. In 1983, Labour suffered what was then its worst electoral loss since 1935, reduced to a rump of 209 seats. The Policy Review overhauled Labour’s strategy and ideology, entrenching the modernisation effort within the party. The review epitomised Labour’s determination to embrace the engine of the capitalist market economy. The political scientists Patrick Seyd and Paul Whiteley come to the striking conclusion that ‘there was widespread support for the modernisation strategy in the party’.