This chapter provides readers with a thorough grounding in the fundamentals of Portuguese grammar. Grammar points are followed by examples and exercises which allow students to reinforce and consolidate their learning. The chapter mainly focuses on the present perfect tense. In Portuguese the present perfect tense has the function of a progressive tense which describes an action or a process prolonged over a length of time. The present perfect is formed by two verbs: the auxiliary verb ter, conjugated in the present tense, plus the past participle of the main verb. In present perfect sentences, pronouns such as direct object pronouns, indirect object pronouns and reflexive pronouns are hyphenated to the auxiliary verb ter. The present perfect is used to describe actions which have started in the past and show repetition.