ABSTRACT

In Chapter 4 , I developed a precise ontology of metonymy and used this to contrast metonymy with the ontology of metaphor developed in Chapter 3 . In this chapter, I turn to the role metonymy and metaphor play in organizing longer stretches of language and their employment in making meaning at the level of the whole text. To do this, I extend ideas in this field to give a comprehensive framework for analyzing metonymy and metaphor at the level of the whole text. In the model I develop, four text-wide phenomena emerge: two are concerned with shifts in the way discourse is framed, either through narrowing the focus, Discourse Metonymy, or widening, Discourse Metaphor; while the second pair are concerned with setting up lexical networks either through metonymic links between items within the text, Textual Metonymy, or patterning within a text organized by metaphor, Textual Metaphor. I consider each in turn below but first I discuss the different ways ‘discourse’ and ‘text’ have been used in the academic literature, and how I will be using them. I briefly review work relevant in this context: Jakobson on metonymic and metaphoric ‘poles’ of communication (Jakobson 1956/1971), Lodge on metonymic and metaphoric ‘modes’ of writing (Lodge 1977), Semino on metaphor ‘chains’ and ‘clusters’ in discourse (Semino 2008), Al-Sharafi on textual metonymy (Al-Sharafi 2004) and Halliday & Hasan on cohesion (Halliday & Hasan 1976). In the last section, I introduce the idea of Text Metaphtonymy, metaphor and metonymy co-occurring at whole-text level.