This chapter talks about the history of special education in England and Wales, particularly in relation to government legislation and advisory documents. It examines changes in attitudes towards children with a range of disabilities and discusses issues that arise from changes in policy and practice. At the end of the Second World War, the 1944 Education Act was passed. The policy behind this Act was to provide statutory education at primary and secondary stages to all children, including those with disabilities. The Education Reform Act (ERA) contributed to a new perspective on pupils with learning difficulties, a perspective which has radically developed since, based upon raised expectations of the learning capabilities and potential attainment of children and young people with special educational needs. Equality Act replaced all existing equality legislation, consolidating it into a single simplified source of discrimination law.