This chapter concentrates on understanding various theoretical aspects of teaching and learning and how these might apply to the development of high-quality teaching, including the challenge of meeting most needs within classroom teaching. It discusses ways of conceptualising pupils' learning within a differentiated curriculum. The chapter analyzes both theoretical and practical issues related to the delivery of the whole curriculum. Approaches are discussed which may help focus on learning styles or experiences, rather than attainment levels, within a set content-based curriculum. The approaches discussed cover three ways of thinking about learning: behavioural; cognitive, in particular thinking skills programmes; and affective, considering the emotional needs of the learner. Since the 1980s, special needs curriculum planning and pedagogy have been strongly influenced by behavioural theories. Clearly, most curriculum planning and development of pedagogy and resources are issues for whole-school development. Special educational needs coordinators (SENCos) can use their particular skills and knowledge and their depth and breadth of understanding of curriculum issues.