In this chapter, the authors explore the dualist view. They provide an exploration of the version of dualism developed by 17th-century French philosopher Rene Descartes. This view is often referred to as Cartesian dualism (“Cartesian” being the adjectival form of the name “Descartes”). The Second and the Sixth Meditation are of most importance with respect to the development of Cartesian dualism. In addition to the Conceivability Argument, the Sixth Meditation also contains a second argument for dualism. Looking at the arguments that Descartes offered in support of his dualism helps us to understand the basic contours of his view. Before leaving Cartesian dualism, it is worth mentioning one more problem – the pairing problem – that confronts any version of substance dualism. Interestingly, however, though dualism had largely disappeared from serious philosophical discussion for much of the 20th century, it returned to the philosophical scene in the 1980s and 1990s.