The journal or notebook is essential for the writer. The writing teacher's journey often becomes a reality and the entry point for a change of teaching style in their classrooms. Philip Lopate describes writing as one way of self-making and celebrates the metaphors which the essayists in the book. The notebook is an important element of the writing group. The notebook allows you to place, within firm covers, writing for oneself alone. Ann Berthoff claims that anybody concerned with working out ideas could be a writer, because writing provides the readiest means of carrying out. A writer's notebook have a more purposeful connection to a crafted piece of writing, although the line between that and a journal is a fine one. Andrew Cowan (2011) in The Art of Writing Fiction recommends that the fiction writer should keep several different notebooks for different purposes. In the 1980s, Pat D'Arcy (1989) and teachers in Wiltshire had great success with think books.