This conclusion presents some closing thoughts on the key concepts discussed in the preceding chapters of this book. The book discusses some of the findings and highlights additional trends observed in the United States relevant to scholars and practitioners interested in researching intra-urban trends in shrinking cities vis-a-vis other cities. It explains the regionalization and suburbanization of shrinkage along with a discussion of the importance of social capital in differentiating among different categories of shrinkage/decline. The book offers a discussion of pro-growth policies and alternatives to the typical "American model" approaches such as right-sizing and smart decline, followed by a discussion of governance and approaches to urban resilience and sustainability practices. It provides some demographic data to show the need to examine all components of demographic shift to understand who will make up the labor force of the city in the near future and in the long term.