This chapter demonstrates that the societies 'take up' or organize literacy practices in culturally variable ways, depending on who is interested in literacy and how literacy is viewed. Written with the authority of the mission, they introduced several types of evidence into Kaluli life; the first is the written Kaluli word. These graphic and photographic images used as and became evidentials, that is, another new source of evidence for authority and truth. Bendix suggests that it is not enough to analyze the epistemological categories of evidentials, but one must view them as important resources used by speakers to manipulate claims of responsibility and evidence in strategic interaction. The analysis of Kaluli literacy lessons, which introduce 'scientific facts', shows innovations in morphological forms expressing epistemic stance, as well as in rhetorical and event structures. In spite of the fact that literacy instruction events draw on models of instruction imported from Western classrooms, there is clear evidence of local language ideology throughout.