ABSTRACT

The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere by Negt and Kluge, and by among others feminist and social historians Nancy Fraser, Joan Landes, and Geoff Eley, argued persuasively that the bourgeois public sphere has from its inception built upon powerful mechanisms of exclusion. Egin's politics made it the subject of countless raids, police surveillance, and harassment tactics. Some members closely connected to the language activist organization, Basque in the Basqueland, had proposed this, arguing that the radio should not only support language revival politically, it demonstrate through committing to use only Basque at the station. The linguistic terrorism performed with a vengeance during the French Revolution and re-enacted in Official English initiatives in the United States more recently, reveal to us how deeply monolingualism ingrained in liberal conceptions of Liberte, Egalite, and Fraternite. It shows, the sphere created and the linguistic strategies they mobilized in it differ significantly from those typically associated with minority language revitalization and/or ethnic nationalist movements.