This chapter summarizes the main fi ndings of the study and explores how they relate to existing research. Some suggestions for further research will be made as well. This study has addressed three major issues: (1) the conceptualization of populism and classifi cation of parties; (2) exploring the causes of populist voting at the individual level; and (3) understanding why some populist parties persist while others declined. The conclusion will be guided by these three lines of inquiry. A next section will deal with the question whether populism should be seen as a threat or rather a corrective for liberal democracy. Finally, some paths of future research will be suggested.