This chapter considers the recent history of the changing contexts of conservation and the resulting shifts in dominant conservation narratives and models. This recent history includes a shift from the 'fortress conservation' model to more people-friendly approaches that emerged in the late 1980s. The chapter provides a generalised history of changing conservation narratives, focuses on most significant and revealing trend: the shift towards integrated conservation and development and subsequent struggles to try to make this effective. It explains the case study from Tanzania, which serves two important purposes. Firstly, it shows that, in practice, different approaches to conservation do not operate one after the other, but layer on top of each other such that elements of fortress conservation, integrated conservation and development and market-based approaches contribute to hybrid forms of conservation. Secondly, and more importantly, the case demonstrates the limitations of prevailing narratives of integrated conservation and development and highlights the case for moving towards a justice-centred conservation narrative.