Education as a competition and emphasis on content to the detriment of process are signs of a reform movement out of balance. In social studies, the reform has emphasized courses rooted in traditional university-based disciplines such as history and economics. Context is a key determinant of which vision of reform holds court among multiple alternatives. The Powell memo, the founding of the BRT, decades of influence peddling, and schooling as a lever for creating worker-citizens are strong evidence of the rising corporate domination of American life. Progressive education reform was rooted in the philosophy of John Dewey and the notion that education should balance subject matter and traditional school learning with the needs and interests of the child. Accountability reform corresponds to the continued development of a power pyramid in American society, with an increasing shift of money and power to the top. Accountability reform has led to more influence for conservative and neoconservative groups, wealthy individuals, and their ideas.