In this chapter, the idea of Islam as an open civilisation is presented in the light of the historical reality of the faith as both a religious and political force. Islam is classified as simultaneously religious and civic. Related to this was the emergence of the Sufi martyr, a distinct classification from that of Sunni and Shi’a notions. It was a self-sacrificing act that made the ultimate political statement. The chapter explores three of the most noted martyrs: al-Hallaj, Ayn al-Quzat, and Suhrawardi Maqtul. These events are further unpacked with reference to religion and the state relations.