The Muslim historian, Ibn Khaldun, described Islam as having the unique responsibility among other religions to wage warfare, as an obligation, to expand territory and engage in power politics. This chapter defines political Sufism as both civic duty as well as the use of Sufi teachings for political ends. Sufi political intervention is, however, representative of the broader range of intellectual content that falls under the umbrella of political Islam. The chapter explores the role of political Sufism from its inception in Baghdad to the present day, informed by qualitative analysis of historical data and one-on-one interviews with Sufi leaders.