The aim of this chapter is thus two-fold: to draw out the socio-economic characteristics of those districts where Maoism is a serious political force; to indicate the importance of mass-scale economic deprivation in bringing people together for a cause. Maoism is the latest incarnation of left-wing radicalism in Orissa. The period, particularly 1960 to 1968, could be seen as the formative phase of the Naxal movement in Orissa. The formation of People's War (PW) in Andhra Pradesh during 1980 had its impact on the course of the Naxal movement in Orissa. The second phase of the growth of the Naxal movement in Orissa is characterized by the emergence of different Naxalite splinter groups in the map of red politics in Orissa. The Naxal movement in Orissa entered yet another phase with the merger of Peoples War Group (PWG) and Maoist Communist Centre (MCC) and the formation of Communist Party in India (CPI) on 21 September 2004.