The left radicalism is not a mere descriptive category however, an ideological device for mobilization around relevant socio-economic and political issues. In an instrumental sense, left radicalism is a goal-driven endeavour seeking to articulate a different brand of politics. The contemporary Maoists and their predecessors, the Naxalites, developed their ideological leaning towards violence on the basis of their understanding of Marxism, Leninism and Maoism. Drawing on the identical ideological sources of Marxism, Leninism and Maoism as their contemporary counterpart, the Naxalites never became as expansive as the Maoists, suggesting perhaps their failure as an ideologically engineered version of left radicalism. The Left radicalism in India represents two contrasting versions of socio-economic transformation: the parliamentary left seeks to fulfil the ideological goal through liberal democratic means while its counterpart, the left-wing extremists, continue to appreciate violent revolutionary methods for eradicating human exploitation and class differences once and for all.