This chapter opens with a discussion of the perceived causes of crime and criminality in the period between 1815 and 1880. It also examines crime in the rural community, focusing particularly on poaching and the game laws. In the early to mid-nineteenth century the causes of crime were rooted in classical explanations of free will and rationality. Put simply, classical explanations asserted that people chose to commit crime. Many commentators recognised the ‘revolving door’ of short-term imprisonment, particularly for those offenders who committed drink-related crimes. The visibility of crime and disorder also meant that the police and the courts dealt with a regular supply of people charged with offences relating to drunkenness. Throughout the century, the criminal justice system was filled with drunkards, and many experienced the ‘revolving door’ of local imprisonment as they were committed for short periods after failing to pay fines imposed.